Banking for the blind and partially sighted
THERE are almost two million people in the UK who have some kind of sight impairment. The RNIB expect that number to double by 2050.
Although banks must ensure that everyone has equal opportunity to use their products and services, even simple tasks such as withdrawing cash can prove challenging.
Here we go through some of the issues, and who's doing what to make things simpler.
Most banks offer to provide printed information - statements, leaflets, and other important information - in a variety of formats, including larger and high visibility print, as well as Braille.
Customers who ask to receive information - and particularly their statements - in Braille may also want to request that they be sent with a copy in the standard format.
The RNIB's study found that while 29% of blind people said they managed their financial affairs entirely on their own, almost 60% said they required the assistance of family or friends - so having a print version can help customers confirm the content.
At the time of writing, the only mobile banking app to have been approved by the Royal National Institute for the Blind (RNIB) is the one from NatWest.
It's taken some time to arrive. NatWest's first mobile banking app was launched in 2011, but it took until May 2016 for the bank to release a version suitable for use by partially sighted or blind people.
The RNIB say that apps from other banks remain largely unusable, primarily because they either aren't compatible with text-to-speech software, or set up in a way that causes it to only partially work.
NatWest worked with the RNIB to make more than 160 changes to the app to make it more user friendly. Users will be told which page they're on within the app - and crucially, when told their balance, they'll also be told whether that's in credit, or overdrawn.
As a result of the NatWest update, it's likely that the other banks will make an effort to update their own apps: Nationwide, for example, say they are "working on" making their banking app work with text-to-speech software.
Mobile banking apps are relatively new, but online banking has been around for much longer, and most banks - including Co-op, HSBC, Santander, Lloyds, and others - have committed to making their websites compliant with the W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines V2.0.
The Bank of Ireland say that following these guidelines "ensures that websites provide the same experience for all of our users".
While the W3C guidelines do improve accessibility in a range of areas - for example, by ensuring colour combinations provide sufficient contrast - they say nothing about either drop-down menus or on-screen keyboards.
These are often used by banks in an attempt to reduce the effectiveness of keystroke-logging malware. But while their presence does address some security concerns, they also prevent text-to-speech software and screen readers from working properly.
As a University of Edinburgh study points out, this is "perhaps the most common barrier for people who use assistive technology".
So some banks have reduced their reliance on drop-down menus. Customers must instead generate a unique security code for each banking session.
Barclays, for example, have a PINsentry card reader that creates unique eight digit codes. Those with visual impairments can get an audio version of the reader, which reads out the code either via the built in speaker or headphones.
By contrast we might expect telephone banking to be somewhat simpler - particularly as First Direct and HSBC begin to bring in voice recognition software to replace passwords, PINs and security questions, but even so the need for security can get in the way of a smooth experience.
The University of Edinburgh study gives the example of one woman's frustration:
"Sometimes I phone up for support from a bank, I can answer all the security questions but if I say 'I now need to pass you to my husband as he can read the screen to you' my bank's staff refuse to talk to him, even though I've just gone through the security questions, proved it's me and explained that I'm blind."
In such cases, the answer might be to train staff to be more aware of, and allow them to make exceptions for, certain customer situations.
An RNIB study carried out in 2011 found that more than half (55%) of blind or partially sighted people chose their main bank based on its close or convenient location, but as more branches close, more customers are having to rely on adapted cash machines.
The good news is that talking ATMs - which allow customers to receive instructions via earphones plugged into a headphone jack on the ATM - are becoming far more commonplace.
Barclays were the first major bank to introduce them, with more than 4,000 now available across the UK. Their ultimate goal, according to their website, is that "100% of our machines will talk".
The Co-operative say that all of their cash machines now offer high contrast screens and audio instructions.
Meanwhile, RBS have said they will have talking ATMs in "almost all" of their branches by the end of 2017.
Overall, the RNIB say there are more than 10,000 talking cash machines in the UK, and that people should contact their bank to locate the nearest.
Where talking ATMs aren't available, all cash machines should offer some form of tactile assistance, including a raised dot on the number 5 to identify the centre of the keypad, a raised circle on the "confirm" button and a raised cross on the "cancel" button.
Both Barclays and RBS / NatWest have introduced modified cards for their visually impaired customers, with the aim of making using them simpler.
The RBS / NatWest cards feature Braille markings stating whether they're for a savings or current account.
All feature larger text and higher contrast designs, and a notch on one side to help people identify them more easily in their wallets and use them the right way around.
That allows for an easier time at cash machines, as well as enabling people to more easily make contactless payments in shops if they wish.
Chip and signature cards
As part of the 2010 Equality Act, anyone who finds it difficult to use a chip and PIN card is entitled to have what's known as a chip and signature card.
That means all banks and building societies should offer such cards - and all stores and service providers who accept card payments should accept them.
That doesn't mean that the issues are over, however.
A mystery shopping study by the Payments Council found that delays caused by retailers not knowing how to process such cards meant that 26% of people who need to use them felt embarrassed or anxious about doing so.
The good news - at least for those carrying out transactions of less than £30 - is that the spread of contactless payment technology will help reduce those issues somewhat.
Taken together, there's scope for much improvement in the services offered to visually impaired people - particularly with web-based technology.
It would appear that too few apps and website are being properly tested before going live. The result - as demonstrated by NatWest - is that the app has to undergo significant redesign to become usable.
That said, some banks are exploring how technology can help partially sighted and blind people from the outset.
In 2014, Barclays started trialling a new app that allowed customers to pre-log information about their disability and any specific needs they may have when visiting the branch.
When the customer enters a branch, the app discretely alerts a staff member via Bluetooth and informs them of the customer's disability and their requirements.